Type: Missile frigate (FFG) Designer: CSIC China Ship Design & Research Centre (701 Institute) Builders: CSSC Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding (Group) Co., Ltd., CSSC Guangzhou Huangpu Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. IOC: 2005 Number: 2
The Type 054 (NATO code name: Jiangkai class) multirole missile frigates were introduced by the PLA Navy in 2005. This class was primarily intended to validate the hull design of a new generation frigate, but still equipped with older weapon systems and sensors. They were succeeded by the more capable Type 054A (Jiangkai-II class).
Construction of a new class of missile frigate began at Shanghai-based Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding (Group) Co., Ltd. in late 2002, followed shortly after by a second hull at Guangzhou-based Huangpu Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. The first-of-class, Ma’anshan (525) was launched at Hudong-Zhonghua on 11 September 2003 and commissioned on 18 February 2005. Hull No.2 Wenzhou (526) was launched at Huangpu on 30 November 2003 and commissioned on 26 September 2006.
The Type 054 appeared to be a much more modernised design compared with previous Chinese-built frigates, featuring a clean, sloped hull with angular lines for reduced radar cross section (RCS) profile. The frigate’s systems are mostly proven designs, such as the HHQ-7 short-range SAM and YJ-83 AShM. However, compared with previous Chinese frigates, the Type 054 featured some significant improvement in its anti-submarine warfare capability, including a sonar suite copied from the Russian MGK-335EM-03, which was used by the Project 956 Sovremenny class destroyers.
The primary air defence weapon is the HHQ-7 (Crotale copy) short-range SAM system, with an 8-cell launcher located on the bow deck behind the main gun and ahead of the bridge. Directed by the H/LJP-345 (Castor CTM copy) fire-control system, the missile is designed to engage aircraft in all-weather, day/night conditions at a maximum range of 8—12 km with line-of-sight guidance. The missile also has limited capability to intercept sea-skimming anti-ship missiles at a range of 4—6 km.
There are also four Type 630 (H/PJ-13) 6-barrelled 30 mm close-in weapon systems (CIWS), which is a Chinese copy of the Russian AK-630M. Directed by an H/LJP-347 (‘Rice Bowl’) fire-control radar, the Type 630 is capable of firing at a rate of 3,000 rounds per minute to a range of 4.0 km against aircraft and 1.5 km against sea-skimming anti-ship missiles.
The Type 054 is armed with eight YJ-83 subsonic sea-skimming anti-ship cruise missiles (ASCM), with two quadruple launchers installed at the mid-ship position. The missile uses active radar-homing to deliver a 165 kg warhead to a range in excess of 180 km.
The main gun on the bow deck is an indigenous H/PJ-87 single-barrel 100 mm gun developed by 713 Institute, based on the French Creusot-Loire T100C. The gun can be used against surface targets as well as air targets such as aircraft and low speed missile, with a firing rate of 90 rounds/min and a maximum range of 17.5 km. The gun can be operated in fully automatic mode from the radar control system, from the shipborne optical sighting system, or laid manually.
The Type 054 has two Type 7424 triple-barrel 324 mm torpedo launchers (B.515S copy) for the Yu-7 active/passive acoustic-homing anti-submarine torpedoes. The Yu-7 carries a 45 kg warhead and has a maximum range of 7.3 km and a maximum speed of 28 knots. The depth of search/attack is 6—400 m.
There are two Type 003A/FQF-3200 six-barrel 240-mm antisubmarine rocket launchers, firing the Type 81G rocket-propelled depth charge (34 kg warhead) to a maximum range of 1,200 m, with 36 rounds.
Air/surface search is provided by an H/LJQ-360 radar mounted on top of the main mast. The radar operates in the E/F-band, with a maximum range of 150 km to aircraft and 50 km to sea-skimming missile.
The H/LJP-345 system consisting of a J-band radar and an electro-optical director (EOD) provides target direction for the HHQ-7 SAM.
An H/LJP-344A radar operating n the I/J-band provides fire-control for the 100 mm main gun and YJ-83 anti-ship missiles.
An H/LJP-347B (‘Rice Bowl’) operating in the I-band and a Type 1B electro-optical director (EOD) installed on top of the helicopter hangar provides fire-control for the four Type 630 CIWS.
For navigation, the frigate has two Racal Decca RM-1290 navigation radars located on the foremast yardarms.
The frigate is equipped with an H/SJD-307 (Russian MGK-335EM-03 copy) hull-mounted medium-frequency sonar suite, integrating the MGK-355 ‘Bullhorn’ active and ‘Whale Tongue’ passive sonar.
H/RJZ-726 active ECM suite consisting of interceptor and jammer.
2x H/RJZ-726-4 18-barrelled 122 mm decoy flare/chaff launcher.
Type 562 towed acoustic torpedo decoy.
Command & Control
The Type 054 frigate is fitted with an indigenous ZJK-3C combat data system developed from the French TAVITAC. The system is based on the 10Mbps common bus architecture, and is capable of supporting operations such as air defence, anti-submarine warfare, electronic warfare, navigation, and communications.
The frigate has a helicopter hangar and deck at the stern capable of operating a medium-sized helicopter, such as the Eurocopter AS 365 Panther or its Chinese copy Harbin Z-9C. The flight deck is fitted with the helicopter handling system. The Z-9C can be armed with a low-frequency dipping sonar system and Yu-7 anti-submarine torpedoes.
The propulsion is a combined diesel and diesel (CODAD) arrangement. The system is based on four SEMT Pielstick (now MAN Diesel SA) 16 PA6V-280 STC diesel engines, one of the most advanced diesel engine designs in Europe. A similar 12 PA6V-280 STC engine with less power is also used by the French La Fayette class frigate. China imported the 16 PA6V-280 STC diesel technology in the late 1990s and has been producing the diesel locally under license at Shaanxi Diesel Factory. Each 16 PA6V-280 engine can produce a sustained power of 4,720 kW (6,330 hp), giving a total power of 18,880 kW (25,320 hp). The propulsion provides a maximum speed of 27 kt and range of more than 8,000 nm.
Displacement (t):......3,540 (standard), 4,053 (full load) Length (m):............134.1 Beam (m):..............15.2 Draft (m):.............4.05 Speed (knots):.........27 Range (nm):............8,000 at 15 knots Crew:..................180
Name No. Builder Fleet Launched Commissioned ---------------------------------------------------------------- Ma'anshan 525 HdZh ESF 2003-09-11 2005-02-18 Wenzhou 526 Hp ESF 2003-11-30 2006-09-26 HdZh...Hudong-Zhonghua Shipyard Hp.....Huangpu Shipyard ESF....East Sea Fleet