China purchased the unfinished ex-Soviet Navy aircraft carrier Varyag from Ukraine in 1998 and finally received the vessel in 2002. After some extensive refurbishments at the Dalian Shipyard in northern China, the vessel was commissioned into the PLA Navy in September 2012 as Liaoning, with hull number ‘16’ and the class name Type 001.
The acquisition of the Russian Sukhoi Flanker series fighter aircraft has been an important part of China’s effort to modernise its air power. Between 1992 and 2004, China received a total of 176 examples of the Flanker series fighter in four variants: Su-27SK (Flanker-B), Su-27UBK (Flanker-C), Su-30MKK (Flanker-G) and Su-30MKK2 (Flanker-G). Another 100 examples of the Su-27SK have been built by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC) under license as the J-11.